The British Museum, CIDOC CRM and the Shaping of Knowledge

At the British Museum we are fast approaching a new production version of our currently beta Semantic Endpoint. The production version will remove some of the current restrictions and provide a more robust environment to develop applications against. It will also come with much needed documentation detailing a new mapping to the CIDOC CRM (Conceptual Reference Model) prompted by feedback received from the current version and by requirements to support the ResearchSpace project.

The use of the CIDOC CRM itself has raised questions and criticisms, mostly from developers. This comes about for a variety of reasons; the lack of current CRM resources; a lack of experience of using it (an issue with any new method or approach); a lack of documentation about particular implementations; but also, particular to this type of publication, a lack of domain knowledge by those creating cultural heritage web applications. The CRM exposes a real issue in the production and publication of cultural heritage information about the extent to which domain experts are involved in digital publication and, as a result, its quality.

The debate about whether we should focus on providing data in a simple format for others to use in web pages and at hack days, against a richer and more ontological approach (requiring a deeper understanding of collection data) is one in which the former position is currently dominant. To support this there are some exceptional projects using simple schemas designed to achieve specific and collaborative objectives. However, many linked data points lack the quality to be more than basic information jukeboxes that, in turn, support applications with limited usefulness and shelf life. In short, the current cultural heritage linked data movement, concentrating on access (a fundamental objective), may have ignored some of reasons for establishing networks of knowledge in the first place.

The British Museum’s source of object data has its stronger and weaker elements but it has descriptions, associations and taxonomies developed over the last 30 years of digitisation. In order to exploit this accumulated knowledge and provide support for a wide range of users, including humanist scholars, it needs to be described within a rich semantic framework. This is a first step to developing the new taxonomies needed to allow different relationships and interpretations of harmonised collections to be exposed. Semantic data harmonisation is not just about linking database records together but is about exploring and discovering (inferring) new knowledge.

The full power of the CRM comes when there is a sufficient mass of conforming data providing a coverage of topics such that the density of information and events generates a resource from which the inference of knowledge can occur. Research tool-kits built around such a collaboration of data would uncover new facts that could never be discovered using traditional methodologies. In this respect it is an ontology tailor made for making intelligent sense of the mass of online cultural heritage data. Its adoption continues to grow but it has also reached a ‘chicken and egg’ stage needing the implementation of public applications to clearly demonstrate its unique properties and value to humanities research.

By bringing data together in a meaningful way rather than just treating it as a technical process or act of systems integration we can start to deconstruct the years of separation and institutional classifications designed to support narrower curatorial and administrative aims. Regardless of the resources available to research projects, this historical limitation, and the lack of any cost effective digital solution, has made the problem of asking a broader range of questions a difficult challenge. But to ask the broader questions that may lead to more interesting, valuable and sustainable web applications, requires appropriate semantic infrastructures. The CRM provides a starting point.

The publication of BM data in the CRM format comes from a concern that many Semantic Web / Linked Data implementations will not provide adequate support for a next generation of collaborative data centric humanities projects. They may not support the types of tools necessary for examining, modelling and discovering relationships between knowledge owned by different organisations at a level currently limited to more controlled and localized data-sets. Indeed, the proliferation of different uncoordinated linked data schemas may create a confusing and complex environment of mappings between data stores and thereby limit the overall effectiveness of semantic technology and produce outputs that don’t push digital publications much beyond those achieved using existing database technology.

The CRM is difficult not because of what it is (a distillation of existing and known cultural heritage concepts and relationships) but because it requires real cross disciplinary collaboration to implement properly – and this type of collaboration is difficult. The aim of the British Museum Endpoint is to deliver a technical interface but also to demystify the processes underlying the implementation of the CRM as well as the BM’s CRM mapping itself. By doing this the Endpoint should support a wide range of publication objectives for different audiences, a wide range developers with varying experience and domain knowledge and crucially fulfill the future needs of humanities scholars.

In particular the aim is to raise the bar on what can be achieved on the Internet and allow researchers to transfer data modelling techniques, that are currently only serviced by specialist relational database models, into the online world. These techniques will allow scholars, with access to CRM aligned datasets, to make sense of and tackle ‘big data’ littered with many different classifications and taxonomies and allow a broader, specialist and contextual re-examination of historical data and historical events.

Dominic Oldman


Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.

You may use these HTML tags and attributes: <a href="" title=""> <abbr title=""> <acronym title=""> <b> <blockquote cite=""> <cite> <code> <del datetime=""> <em> <i> <q cite=""> <strike> <strong>